The goal of this project is two-fold: (1) investigate the state of parenthood and (2) provide the first empirical data set on this emerging and critical topic within the Earth and Space science communities. Meeting the demands of parenthood while simultaneously keeping pace with a research career trajectory, can appear an unsurmountable challenge. Pre-through postdoctoral training is typically carried out over 6+ years, during one’s second and third decade. This critical professional period coincides with the time when many would consider starting a family. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies of this critical challenge within the Earth and Space science communities.